Cryptographic hash functions are mathematical operations run on digital data; by comparing the computed hash (i.e., the output produced by executing a hashing algorithm) to a known and expected hash value, a person can determine the data's integrity. For example, computing the hash of a downloaded file and comparing the result to a previously published hash result can show whether the download has been modified or tampered with. In addition, cryptographic hash functions are extremely collision-resistant; in other words, it should be extremely difficult to produce the same hash output from two different input values using a cryptographic hash function.
Secure Hash Algorithm 2 (SHA-2) is a set of cryptographic hash functions designed by the National Security Agency (NSA). It consists of six identical hashing algorithms (i.e., SHA-256, SHA-512, SHA-224, SHA-384, SHA-512/224, SHA-512/256) with a variable digest size. SHA-256 is a -bit ( byte) hashing algorithm which can calculate a hash code for an input of up to bits. It undergoes rounds of hashing and calculates a hash code that is a -digit hexadecimal number.
Given a string, , print its SHA-256 hash value.
A single alphanumeric string denoting .
String consists of English alphabetic letters (i.e., and/or decimal digits (i.e., through ) only.
Print the SHA-256 encryption value of on a new line.