- Prepare
- Algorithms
- Bit Manipulation
- AND Product

# AND Product

# AND Product

Consider two non-negative long integers, and , where . The bitwise AND of all long integers in the inclusive range between and can be expressed as , where is the bitwise AND operator.

Given pairs of long integers, and , compute and print the bitwise AND of all natural numbers in the inclusive range between and .

For example, if and , the calculation is .

**Function Description**

Complete the *andProduct* in the editor below. It should return the computed value as an integer.

andProduct has the following parameter(s):

*a*: an integer*b*: an integer

**Input Format**

The first line contains a single integer , the number of intervals to test.

Each of the next lines contains two space-separated integers and .

**Constraints**

**Output Format**

For each pair of long integers, print the bitwise AND of all numbers in the inclusive range between and on a new line.

**Sample Input 0**

```
3
12 15
2 3
8 13
```

**Sample Output 0**

```
12
2
8
```

**Explanation 0**

There are three pairs to compute results for:

- and

, so we print on a new line. - and

- and

**Sample Input 1**

```
2
17 23
11 15
```

**Sample Output 1**

```
16
8
```