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Basically every %... is gonna be replaced by one of the arguments of printf. What is after the % sign is a format specifier.
0 means: pad with 0s instead of spaces
3 means: make it at least 3 characters long
d means: the argument will be an integer number, format it as a base-10 number.
%n is the same as \n on *NIX or \r\n on Windows.
You will get more info here: https://docs.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/api/java/util/Formatter.html#syntax