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An array, , is defined as follows:
You will be given a left and right index . You must determine the XOR sum of the segment of as .
For example, . The segment from to sums to .
Print the answer to each question.
The first line contains an integer , the number of questions.
Each of the next lines contains two space-separated integers, and , the inclusive left and right indexes of the segment to query.
On a new line for each test case, print the XOR-Sum of 's elements in the inclusive range between indices and .
Sample Input 0
Sample Output 0
The beginning of our array looks like this:
Test Case 0:
Test Case 1:
Test Case 2: